Cocoa in West Africa is primarily produced by 1.8 to 2 million smallholder farmers. Low income and poverty make farmers more vulnerable and limit their ability to invest in sustainable agricultural practices. Cocoa smallholders suffer from low productivity due to poor land management, aging and diseased trees, and progressing climate change impacts. In addition, cocoa production is one of the main drivers of forest loss in West Africa. Companies have leverage over the implementation of agricultural practices in cocoa production. A relatively small number of companies control a significant portion of the cocoa market. The research undertaken in this study seeks to contribute to the effectiveness of company programs in the cocoa sector in Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana through the identification of factors that shift farmer behavior.