This study brings to the fore the common and persistent factors that pose a threat to the sustainability of cocoa agroforestry, presented through a systematic literature review approach, and further discussed using the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) model as the focal point. The paper identifies a number of serious limitations to the sustainability of cocoa agroforestry, including a lack of technical support for planting trees, an increase in pests and diseases, the intense competition for nutrients between shade trees and cocoa trees, weak land tenure policies, and numerous other factors. The eleven identified limitations were further categorized and analysed under Environmental, Economic, and Social Limitations. Based on the findings of the study, cocoa agroforestry must not only support both cocoa production and forest conservation simultaneously but also satisfy all three Sustainable Development Dimensions. For cocoa agroforestry to become an agricultural practice that is sustainable, it must address the environmental limitations, economic limitations, and social limitations simultaneously.