This report sets out the initial findings of Innovation Forum’s action research project to build durable smallholder agricultural supply chains. This project was established in May 2020 to respond to the fact that, despite almost decades of effort to address social and environmental challenges in these supply chains, considerable problems still remain. The project currently includes six member organisations: the Clinton Development Initiative, COLEACP, Cotton Connect, GIZ, Golden Agri-Resources and Nestlé SA. The aim is to share lessons learned by these organisations, and bring in perspectives often ignored in current debates, for example from fields such as development economics, political economy and anthropology. The goal is to derive actionable lessons which can improve practice on the ground.