Metals and minerals are at the core of human and economic development. Their use is expected to increase substantially in the coming decades in light of a growing world population. Metals and minerals are also essential for the clean energy transition to meet the urgent climate change challenge, such as for the production of batteries for cars, solar panels and wind turbines. While the operations of the large-scale mining sector are essential to maintain and increase economic development around the world the sector also faces serious challenges related to its significant environmental and social impact. Environmental and social impacts of the sector include greenhouse gas emissions, toxic waste that can negatively impact soil and water quality, unsafe working conditions and negative impacts on vulnerable groups such as women and indigenous people. The vulnerability of marginal groups, such as women working in artisanal and smallscale mining have been further exacerbated with the COVID-19 pandemic.