Visual Summaries

Evidensia’s Visual Summaries help you make sense of what the available evidence says on key research questions. The summaries plot individual statistical results from all relevant impact evaluation studies reviewed as part of specific research synthesis efforts undertaken by us or other researchers with each square representing one result from a study.

For more information on the methodology and type of evidence included in these Visual Summaries visit the Evidensia Approach and Methodology page and scroll down to Visual Summaries.

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Intervention performed better (strongest studies)
Intervention performed better
No significant difference (strongest studies)
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Intervention performed worse (strongest studies)
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Sustainability issues and outcomes
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Climate change
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Carbon sequestration
Climate change adaptation/resilience
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Forests and other ecosystems
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Afforestation
Conversion and protection of non-forest natural ecosystems
Deforestation and forest protection
Ecosystem quality
Forest fires
Habitat fragmentation or connectivity
Riparian areas
Shade cover (in agroforestry crops)
Freshwater and oceans
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Bycatch
Fish stock health
Water quality
Water use efficiency
Participant costs and benefits
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Cost of inputs
Household Income (net)
Knowledge
Market access
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Product income (gross and net)
Quality of product
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Pesticides, fertilizers and soil
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Antibiotic use
Fertilizers
Pesticides and herbicides
Soil erosion
Soil health
Plant and wildlife conservation
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Habitat for plants and wildlife
Invasive species
Rare, threatened and endangered species
Species composition
Bibliography of visualised research
Climate change
Haggar, J., et al., 'Environmental-economic Benefits and Trade-offs on Sustainably Certified Coffee Farms', Ecological Indicators, vol. 79, 2017, pp. 330-337.
Griscom, B., P. Ellis, and F. E. Putz, 'Carbon Emissions Performance of Commercial Logging in East Kalimantan, Indonesia', Global Change Biology, vol. 20, 2014, pp. 923-937.
Forests and other ecosystems
Azhar, B. et al., 'Promoting Landscape Heterogeneity to Improve the Biodiversity Benefits of Certified Palm Oil Production: Evidence from Peninsular Malaysia', Global Ecology and Conservation, vol. 3, 2015, pp. 553-561.
Carlson, K. et al., 'Effect of Oil Palm Sustainability Certification on Deforestation and Fire in Indonesia', Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 115, no. 1, 2015, pp. 121-126.
Cattau, M. E., M. E. Marlier, and R. DeFries, 'Effectiveness of Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) for Reducing Fires on Oil Palm Concessions in Indonesia from 2012 to 2015', Environmental Research Letters, vol. 11, 2016, pp. 105007.
Caudill, S. A., and R. A. Rice, 'Do Bird Friendly (R) Coffee Criteria Benefit Mammals? Assessment of Mammal Diversity in Chiapas, Mexico', PLoS ONE, vol. 11, no. 11, 2016, pp. e0165662.
Committee On Sustainability Assessment (COSA), The COSA Measuring Sustainability Report: Coffee and Cocoa in 12 Countries, Philadelphia, COSA, 2013, p. 86.
Haggar, J., et al., 'Environmental-economic Benefits and Trade-offs on Sustainably Certified Coffee Farms', Ecological Indicators, vol. 79, 2017, pp. 330-337.
Hardt, E., et al., 'Does Certification Improve Biodiversity Conservation in Brazilian Coffee Farms?' Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 357, 2015, pp. meridian_vss_impacts-194.
Hughell, D., and D. Newsom, 'Impacts of Rainforest Alliance Certification on Coffee Farms in Colombia', Rainforest Alliance, 2013, https://www.rainforest-alliance.org/sites/default/files/2016-08/cenicafe-report.pdf, (accessed 31 January 2019).
Rueda, X. and E. F. Lambin, 'Responding to Globalization: Impacts of Certification on Colombian Small-Scale Coffee Growers', Ecology and Society, vol. 18, no. 3, 2013.
Rueda, X., N. E. Thomas, and E. F. Lambin, 'Eco-Certification and Coffee Cultivation Enhance Tree Cover and Forest Connectivity in the Colombian Coffee Landscapes', Regional Environmental Change, vol. 15, 2015, pp. 25-33.
Takahashi, R., and Y. Todo, 'The Impact of a Shade Coffee Certification Program on Forest Conservation: A Case Study from a Wild Coffee Forest in Ethiopia', Journal of Environmental Management, vol. 130, 2013, pp. 48-54.
Takahashi, R., and Y. Todo, 'The Impact of a Shade Coffee Certification Program on Forest Conservation Using Remote Sensing and Household Data', Environmental Impact Assessment Review, vol. 44, 2014, pp. 76-81.
Takahashi, R., and Y. Todo, 'Coffee Certification and Forest Quality: Evidence from a Wild Coffee Forest in Ethiopia', World Development, vol. 92, 2017, pp. 158-166.
Noojipady, P. et al., 'Managing Fire Risk During Drought: the Influence of Certification and El Niño on Fire-Driven Forest Conversion for Oil Palm in Southeast Asia', Earth System Dynamics, vol. 8, no. 3, 2017, pp. 749-771.
Miteva D., A. Loucks and S. Pattanayak, 'Social and Environmental Impacts of Forest Management Certification in Indonesia', PLoS ONE, vol. 10, no. 7, 2015, e0129675.
Medjibe, V. P., F. E. Putz, and C. Romero, 'Certified and Uncertified Logging Concessions Compared in Gabon: Changes in Stand Structure, Tree Species, and Biomass', Environmental Management, vol. 51, 2013, pp. 524-540.
Blackman, A., L. Goff, and M. Rivera Planter, 'Does Eco-Certification Stem Tropical Deforestation? Forest Stewardship Council Certification in Mexico', Environment for Development Discussion Paper Series, 2015, pp. 1-45.
Villalobos, L., J. Coria, and A. Norden, 'Has Forest Certification Reduced Forest Degradation in Sweden?', Land Economics, vol. 93, no. 3, 2018, pp. 220-238.
Heilmayr, R., and E. F. Lambin. 'Impacts of Nonstate Governance on Chilean Forests'. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 113, no. 11, 2016, pp. 2910-2915
Rana, P., and E. O. Sills, 'Does Certification Change the Trajectory of Tree Cover in Working Forests in the Tropics? An Application of the Synthetic Control Method of Impact Evaluation', Forests, vol. 9, no. 98, 2018, pp. 1-15.
Panlasigui, S., et al., 'Impacts of Certification, Uncertified Concessions, Hunting Zones and Protected Areas on Forest Loss in Cameroon, 2000 to 2013.'
Rico, J., et al., 'Logging Concessions, Certification and Protected Areas in the Peruvian Amazon: Forest Impacts from Combinations of Development Rights and Land-Use Restrictions,' 2017.
Griscom, B., P. Ellis, and F. E. Putz, 'Carbon Emissions Performance of Commercial Logging in East Kalimantan, Indonesia', Global Change Biology, vol. 20, 2014, pp. 923-937.
Freshwater and oceans
Hughell, D., and D. Newsom, 'Impacts of Rainforest Alliance Certification on Coffee Farms in Colombia', Rainforest Alliance, 2013, https://www.rainforest-alliance.org/sites/default/files/2016-08/cenicafe-report.pdf, (accessed 31 January 2019).
Participant costs and benefits
Haggar, J., et al., 'Environmental-economic Benefits and Trade-offs on Sustainably Certified Coffee Farms', Ecological Indicators, vol. 79, 2017, pp. 330-337.
Asfaw, S., D. Mithoefer, and H. Waibel, 'EU Private Agrifood Standards in African High Value Crops: Pesticide Use and Farm-level Productivity', 12th Congress of the European Association of Agricultural Economists (EAAE), 2008, pp. 26-29.
Barham. B. L., and J. G. Weber, 'The Economic Sustainability of Certified Coffee: Recent Evidence from Mexico and Peru', World Development, vol. 40, no. 6, 2012, pp. 1269-1279.
Becchetti, L. and S. Castriota, 'Is Fair Trade Honey Sweeter? An Empirical Analysis on the Effect of Affiliation on Productivity', CEIS Tor Vergata Research Paper Series, vol. 7, no. 141, 2009, pp. 1-37.
Becchetti, L., P. Conzo, and F. Pisani, 'Market Access, Organic Farming and Productivity: the Effects of Fair Trade Affiliation on Thai Farmer Producer Groups', The Australian Journal of Agriculture and Resource Economics, vol. 56, 2011, pp. 117-140.
Jena, P. R. et al., 'The Impact of Coffee Certification on Small-scale Producers' Livelihoods: A Case Study from the Jimma Zone, Ethiopia', Journal of Agricultural Economics, vol. 43, 2012, pp. 429-440.
Kamau, M. W. et al., 'The Impact of Certification on Smallholder Coffee Farmers in Kenya: The Case of 'UTZ' Certification Program', The Joint 3rd African Association of Agricultural Economists (AAAE) and 48th Agricultural Economists Association of South Africa (AEASA) Conference, Cape Town, South Africa, September 19-23, 2010.
Parvathi, P., and H. Waibel, 'Organic Agriculture and Fair Trade: A Happy Marriage? A Case Study of Certified Smallholder Black Pepper Farmers in India', World Development, vol. 77, 2016, pp. 206-220.
Ruben, R., and R. Fort, 'The Impact of Fair Trade Certification for Coffee Farmers in Peru', World Development, vol. 40, no. 3, 2012, pp. 570-582.
van Rijsbergen, B. T. et al., 'The Ambivalent Impact of Coffee Certification on Farmers' Welfare: A Matched Panel Approach for Cooperatives in Central Kenya', World Development, vol. 77, 2016, pp. 277-292.
Subervie, J., and I. Vagneron, 'A Drop of Water in the Indian Ocean? The Impact of GlobalGap Certification on Lychee Farmers in Madagascar', World Development, vol. 50, 2013, pp. 57-73.
Weber, J. G., 'How Much More Do Growers Receive For Fair Trade-Organic Coffee?', Food Policy, vol. 36, 2011, pp. 678-685.
Ruben, R., and G. Zuniga, 'How Standards Compete: Comparative Impact of Coffee Certification Schemes in Northern Nicaragua', Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, vol. 21, no. 3, 2011, pp. 490-509.
Minten, B., et al., 'Who Benefits From the Rapidly Increasing Voluntary Sustainability Standards? Evidence from Fairtrade and Organic Certified Coffee in Ethiopia', International Food Policy Research Institute, Working Paper 71.
Nelson, V., et al., 'Assessing the Poverty Impact of Sustainability Standards: Fairtrade in Ghanaian Cocoa', Natural Resources Institute , University of Greenwich, 2013.
Bennett, M. et al., 'Cote d'Ivoire Cocoa: COSA Survey of Rainforest Alliance Certified Farms', Committee on Sustainability Assessment, 2012, pp. 45.
Riisgaard, L., et al., 'The Performance of Voluntary Standard Schemes from the Perspective of Small Producers in East Africa', Danish Institute for International Studies, Copenhagen, 2009, pp. 63.
Kuit, M., L. Guinee, and P. Van Anh, 'Estimating the Impact of Implementation of the 4C Entry Level Standard in Uganda and Vietnam', Kuit Consultancy, 2016, pp. 78.
Mueller, A. K., and L. Theuvsen, 'Financial Literacy and Food Safety Standards in Guatemala: The Heterogeneous Impact of GlobalGAP on Farm Income', GlobalFood Discussion Papers, no. 63, 2015, pp. 48.
Hoebink, P., et al., 'The Impact of Coffee Certification on Smallholder Farmers in Kenya, Uganda, and Ethiopia', Center for International Development Issues Nijmegen (CIDIN), 2014, pp. 235.
Chiputwa, B. D. Spielman, and M. Qaim, 'Food Standards, Certification, and Poverty among Coffee Farmers in Uganda', World Development, no. 66, 2015, pp. 400-412.
Fort, R. and R. Ruben, 'The Impact of Fair Trade on Banana Producers in Northern Peru', in R. Ruben (ed.), The Impact of Fair Trade, Wageningen, Wageningen Academic Publishers, 2008, pp. 49-74.
Mitiku, F., et al., 'Certification of Semi-forest Coffee as a Land-sharing Strategy in Ethiopia', Ecological Economics, vol. 145, 2018, pp. 194-204.
Akoyi, K. T, and M. Maertens, 'Walk the Talk: Private Sustainability Standards in the Ugandan Coffee Sector', The Journal of Development Studies, 2017, pp. 1-27.
Fenger, N. A., et al., 'The Impact of Certification on the Natural and Financial Capitals of Ghanaian Cocoa Farmers', Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems, vol. 41, no. 2, 2017, pp. 143-166.
Jena, P. R., et al., 'Can Coffee Certification Schemes Increase Incomes of Smallholder Farmers? Evidence from Jinotega, Nicaragua', Environment, Development, and Sustainability, vol. 19, pp. 45-66.
Vanderhaegen, K., et al., 'Do Private Coffee Standards 'Walk the Talk' in improving Socio-economic and Environmental Sustainability?', Global Environmental Change, vol. 51, 2018, pp. 1-9.
Mitiku, F., et al., 'Do Private Sustainability Standards Contribute to Income Growth and Povery Alleviation? A Comparison of Different Coffee Certification Schemes in Ethiopia', Sustainability, vol.9, no. 2, 2017, pp. 246-267.
Ingram, V., et al., 'The Impacts of Cocoa Sustainability Initiatives in West Africa', Sustainability, vol.10, no. 11, 2018, pp. 4249-4269.
Karki, S.K., Jena, P. R., and Grote, U., 'Fair Trade Certification and Livlihoods: A Panel Data Analysis of Coffee-growing Households in India', Agricultural and Resource Economics Review, vol.45, no. 3, 2016, pp. 436-458.
Jena, P. R., and U. Grote, 'Fairtrade Certification and Livelihood Impacts on Small-scale Coffee Producers in a Tribal Community of India', Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy, vol. 39, no. 1, 2017, pp. 87-110.
Qiao, Y., et al. 'Assessing the Social and Economic Benefits of Organic and Fair Trade Tea Production for Small-scale Farmers in Asia: A Comparative Case Study of China and Sri Lanka', Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems, vol. 31, no. 3, 2016, pp. 246-257.
Qiao, Y., et al., 'Certified Organic Agriculture as an Alternative Livelihood Strategy for Small-scale Farmers in China: A Case Study in Wanzai County, Jiangzi Provice', Ecological Economics, vol. 145, 2018, pp. 301-307.
Eyhorn, F., et al., 'Does Organic Farming Provide a Viable Alternative for Smallholder Rice Farmers in India?', Sustainability, vol. 10, 2018, pp. 4424-4439.
Resende Fiho, M. A., et al., 'Economic and Productivity Incentives to Produce Organically in Brazil: Evidence from Strawberry Production in the Federal District', Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems, vol. 34, no. 2, 2019, pp. 155-168.
Morgans, C. L. et al., 'Evaluating the Effectiveness of Palm Oil Certification in Delivering Multiple Sustainability Objectives', Environmental Research Letters, vol. 13, 2018, pp. 064302-064314.
Doanh, N. K., Thuong, N. T. T., Heo, Y., 'Impact of Conversion to Organic Tea Cultivation on Household Income in the Moutainous Areas of Northern Vietnam', Sustainability, vol. 10, no. 12, 2018, pp. 4475-4496.
Zulfiqar, F., & G. B. Thapa, 'Is 'Better Cotton' Better Than Conventional Cotton in Terms of Input Use Efficiency and Financial Performance?', Land Use Policy, vol. 52, 2016, pp. 136-143.
Ibanez, M., and A. Blackman, 'Is Eco-Certification a Win-Win for Developing Country Agriculture? Organic Coffee Certification in Columbia', World Development, vol. 82, 2016, pp. 14-27.
Froehlich, A. G., et al., 'Comparing the Profitability of Organic and Conventional Production in Family Farming: Empirical Evidence from Brazil', Ecological Economics, vol. 150, 2018, pp. 307-314.
Nelson, V. et al., 'Fairtrade Coffee: A Study to Assess the Impact of Fairtrade for Coffee Smallholders and Producer Organizations in Indonesia, Mexico, Peru, and Tanzania', Natural Resources Institute, University of Greenwich, Chatham, UK, 2016, pp. 1-187.
Waarts, Y. et al., 'Impact of UTZ Certification on Cocoa Producers in Ghana, 2011 to 2014', LEI Wageningen UR, Den Haag, 2015, pp. 1-47.
Girma, J., and C. Gardebroek, 'The Impact of Contracts on Organic Honey Producers' Incomes in Southwestern Ethiopia', Forest Policy and Economics, vo. 50, 2015, pp. 259-268.
Minten, B., et al., 'Tracking the Quality Premium of Certified Coffee: Evidence from Ethiopia', World Development, vol. 101, 2018, pp. 119-132.
Vellema, W., et al., 'The Effect of Specialty Coffee Certification on Household Livelihood Strategies and Specialisation', Food Policy, vol. 57, 2015, pp. 13-25.
Ingram, V. et al., 'Towards Sustainable Cocoa in Cote d'Ivoire', Wageningen Economic Research, vol. 41, 2018, pp. 1-138.
Parvathi, P. and H. Waibel, 'The Impact of Certification on Material Input Costs in India', in P. Parvathi, U. Grote, and H. Waibel (eds.), Fair Trade and Organic Agriculture: A Winning Combination? Boston, CABI, 2018, pp. 130-140.
Parvathi, P. and Waibel, H., 'Is Organic Agriculture and Fair Trade Certification a Way Out of Crisis? Evidence from Black Pepper Farmers in India', GEWISOLA Annual Conference Proceedings, 2015, pp. 1-28.
Pesticides, fertilizers and soil
Hughell, D., and D. Newsom, 'Impacts of Rainforest Alliance Certification on Coffee Farms in Colombia', Rainforest Alliance, 2013, https://www.rainforest-alliance.org/sites/default/files/2016-08/cenicafe-report.pdf, (accessed 31 January 2019).
Plant and wildlife conservation
Caudill, S. A., and R. A. Rice, 'Do Bird Friendly (R) Coffee Criteria Benefit Mammals? Assessment of Mammal Diversity in Chiapas, Mexico', PLoS ONE, vol. 11, no. 11, 2016, pp. e0165662.
Haggar, J., et al., 'Environmental-economic Benefits and Trade-offs on Sustainably Certified Coffee Farms', Ecological Indicators, vol. 79, 2017, pp. 330-337.
Hardt, E., et al., 'Does Certification Improve Biodiversity Conservation in Brazilian Coffee Farms?' Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 357, 2015, pp. meridian_vss_impacts-194.
Hughell, D., and D. Newsom, 'Impacts of Rainforest Alliance Certification on Coffee Farms in Colombia', Rainforest Alliance, 2013, https://www.rainforest-alliance.org/sites/default/files/2016-08/cenicafe-report.pdf, (accessed 31 January 2019).
Komar, O., Are Rainforest Alliance Certified Coffee Plantations Bird-Friendly, San Salvador, El Salvador, SalvaNATURA, 2012, pp. 1-76.
Rueda, X. and E. F. Lambin, 'Responding to Globalization: Impacts of Certification on Colombian Small-Scale Coffee Growers', Ecology and Society, vol. 18, no. 3, 2013.
Takahashi, R., and Y. Todo, 'Coffee Certification and Forest Quality: Evidence from a Wild Coffee Forest in Ethiopia', World Development, vol. 92, 2017, pp. 158-166.
Medjibe, V. P., F. E. Putz, and C. Romero, 'Certified and Uncertified Logging Concessions Compared in Gabon: Changes in Stand Structure, Tree Species, and Biomass', Environmental Management, vol. 51, 2013, pp. 524-540.
Kalonga, S. K., F. Midtgaard, and K. Klanderud, 'Forest Certification as a Policy Option in Conserving Biodiversity: An Empirical Study of Forest Management in Tanzania', Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 361, 2016, pp. 1-12.

Results visualisation generated by Evidensia.

Highlighted results relate to:
 
What do the labels mean?

Robust research designs for assessing the impact or contribution of a specific tool or approach usually involve the comparison of the intervention or ‘treatment’ with a suitable ‘control’. The phrase ‘intervention performed better’ means that in that case, the study found that the treatment group did better than the control group signifying that the intervention was generally successful in relation to that outcome of interest. ‘Intervention performed worse’ means that the control group performed better and that the intervention was not successful in that case. Finally, ‘No significant difference’ means that the study could not statistically establish any significant difference between the treatment and control groups in that particular case. The directionality of the result (i.e. whether the intervention performed better, worse or cannot be established) is based on the researcher’s findings.

What do solid squares mean?

The solid squares represent results from studies with experimental research designs (like randomized control trials) or quasi-experimental research designs that use matching techniques to ensure comparability of the treatment and control groups over a period of time. Such results are generally considered to have more ‘weight’ as they are backed by stronger research designs.

What do hatched squares mean?

Hatched squares represent results from studies that compare treatment and control scenarios using research designs that are not as strong as those represented by the solid square. Hatched squares are results from: a) quasi-experimental studies that use matching techniques to ensure comparability of the treatment and control groups but only at one point in time; b) quasi-experimental studies with a weak or unmatched control with data collected over time; or c) modeling studies that compared treatment and control scenarios. Such results provide a useful indication of contribution of the intervention (or lack thereof), but do not fully rule out other possible explanations for the observed differences or similarities between treatment and control groups.