The report examines the potential of voluntary sustainability standards (VSSs) in addressing three major sustainability challenges in South Asia's cotton sector: pest management, water conservation, and farmers' prices and incomes. The report provides guidance for policymakers on how to use VSSs to boost intra-regional trade, improve conditions in cotton production, and increase the impact of VSSs in the region. The report assesses whether VSSs have a role to play in the region and evaluates the market potential for standard-compliant cotton in South Asia. It goes onto analyse the policy landscape in South Asia, describing the status of regional cooperation and trade policy as well as national initiatives related to the promotion of sustainable cotton production. The report recommends ways in which VSSs could support regional and national policies and collaboration to sustainability issues facing the South Asian cotton sector.