This journal article aims to understand the importance of ecological criteria for sustainability by reviewing the literature on issues related to the implementation of ecological criteria on global, national, and local scales. This study uses qualitative content analysis by examining secondary data searches such as journal articles and research reports regarding the topics. A case study in the oil palm plantation in Belitung Island and the Indonesian palm oil sector is also used to see how global and national ecological criteria for sustainable palm oil were designed and whether it is adaptable to the local context. This study reveals three main themes, namely the function of ecological criteria and indicators, the adaptation of global and regional criteria, and the importance of local characteristics and value. The study concludes that although global and national criteria for sustainable palm oil have been established, the characteristics of local biodiversity and social value and its prioritization are needed to ensure sustainability reached the lowest scale.